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Health, Safety, and ACC

3.1 Duties of PCBUs

3.1
Duties of PCBUs
This chapter sets out the duties of PCBUs contained in Health and Safety at Work Act 2015 (HSW Act). The first part of the chapter deals with the primary duties of PCBUs. Along with the statutory primary duties, this section includes the duty of PCBUs to consult with other PCBUs where there are shared and overlapping duties, as well as PCBUs controllers of workplaces, fixtures and the duty to notify and preserve incident scenes.
The second part of the chapter deals with upstream duties – those resting on PCBUs that design, manufacture, import, supply and install upstream of workplaces that will use the products or service.
The duties of officers of PCBUs are contained in the third part of this chapter, followed by the duties of workers and others at a workplace.
3.1.1
Primary duties of care
The primary duties of care of PCBUs are set out in s 36 of the HSW Act. This section also contains some broad duties and some that are focused and detailed. Although subpart 2 of pt 2 of the Act groups duties of PCBUs, further PCBU duties are found throughout the Act. This chapter describes duties of PCBUs, contained in s 36 and others provisions of the Act.
The first part of the PCBU primary duty of care requires all PCBUs to ensure, so far as reasonably practicable:
• 
the health and safety of their workers while the workers are at work in the business or undertaking;
• 
the health and safety of workers whose activities in carrying out work are influenced or directed by the PCBU, while they are carrying out the work; and
• 
the health and safety of other persons is not put at risk from work carried out as part of the conduct of the business or undertaking.
The scope of the third element of the primary duty is potentially very broad as it is no longer limited to a specific work activity or workplace. For example, it could relate to a failure to maintain an item of plant that is part of the PCBU’s business or undertaking, and thereby putting a service user at risk. The HSW Act, at s 34, also requires PCBUs to consult with other PCBUs where their activities overlap. This duty to consult is a key obligation of PCBUs and is equally as important as the primary duties in s 36. The consultation duty is dealt with below.
The PCBU primary duties of care continue in s 36(3), which provides that a PCBU must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable:
• 
a work environment that is without risks to health and safety;
• 
safe plant and structures;
• 
safe systems of work;
• 
safe use, handling and storage of plant;
• 
safe use, handling and storage of substances;
• 
safe use, handling and storage of structures;
• 
adequate facilities for the welfare of workers at work;
• 
provision of information, training, instruction or supervision necessary to protect all persons from risks to health and safety from work the PCBU conducts; and
• 
health monitoring of workers and workplace conditions to prevent injury or illness.
(1)
Work environments
A PCBU must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the provision and maintenance of a work environment that is without risks to health and safety. The word “environment” should be interpreted widely to include any part of the workplace. This means a place where:
• 
work is being carried out, or is customarily carried out; and
• 
a worker goes, or is likely to be while at work, including welfare facilities and car parks.
The following are some basic issues in work environments. A systematic risk assessment will help identify higher-risk activities or situations that may be specific to each workplace or work environment.
(a)
Access and egress
In a workplace that is a building, there should be safe access and egress and a safe environment in which to move around generally. There is also a duty to provide safe access for maintenance activities. For example, a landlord must ensure there is safe access for maintenance workers to any roof-mounted plant or into any service ducts.
The duty to provide safe access and egress covers maintaining the condition of paths, steps and entrances for all types of users including those with mobility issues or who might be wheeling loads. Floors should be even and in good condition with suitable treads or non-slip surfaces where there is a particular risk. Walkways should be clearly marked and where there is a risk from vehicle movements, consideration should be given to separation by means of barriers, with discrete vehicle and pedestrian entrances to buildings, good lighting and lines of sight. A traffic management plan will be appropriate for busy workplaces with multiple vehicle and pedestrian hazards.
Avoidance of loose items, trailing cables or accumulations of dust and debris will also ensure workers and others can safely traverse the workplace.
(b)
Openings in a building
If there are openings in a floor or wall (e.g. to raise or lower stock through) they should be guarded so that workers cannot fall through. Similar considerations will apply to a loading platform in a warehouse or deck on a scaffold. Temporary openings at construction sites need to be fully fenced or protected with fixed, load bearing covers.
(c)
Heating, cooling and ventilation of workplaces
Generally, workplaces that are buildings should be heated in winter and cooled and/or ventilated in summer to keep the temperature within the normal comfort range of 16 to 25 degrees Celsius. Specific work environments may have extremes of temperature (cold store or furnace). Worker exposure to these extremes should be kept to a minimum and suitable protective clothing provided. Rest breaks and hot or cold drinks will help to reduce the risk of harmful effects.
Workplaces should be sufficiently ventilated to avoid a build-up of smells, gases, vapours or dust. This is a basic welfare requirement as well as a means of reducing exposure to harmful contaminants such as carbon monoxide from internal combustion engines in a warehouse, or fine dust from a sanding machine. General ventilation in accordance with the Building Act 2004 will keep the air fresh, whilst local extractor ventilation removes contaminants from as close as possible to the point of production to prevent them entering the general workroom air.
(d)
Traffic routes
The interface between people and vehicles is one of the most significant causes of workplace harm, hence the Act and regulations require that careful planning of internal and external traffic management systems is done in order to reduce the risk as low as reasonably practicable. There are a number of strategies for achieving this and guidance from WorkSafe (available at the WorkSafe website) suggests an approach based on three key elements:
• 
safe site – where possible, vehicles and pedestrians should be kept separate through good workplace design such as marked lanes and walkways, exclusion zones, speed limits, one-way systems, designated crossing points, and barriers;
• 
safe vehicle – the selection, maintenance and use of appropriate vehicles for different environments. Factors such as visibility aids (mirrors, cameras), horns, using the correct vehicle for the task (side loader fork trucks for carrying timber) or terrain, speed restrictors, protective structures and seat belts are all important in different situations; and
• 
safe driver – ensuring the driver is suitably trained and certified, competent and experienced with the particular type of vehicle, and physically and mentally fit for the job.
Other factors to take into account might include control of reversing, restricted pedestrian access into predominantly vehicle areas (such as warehouses), effective communication mechanisms, signage, good lighting and enforcement of site rules.
See also the duties of PCBUs who manage or control a workplace at [3.1.3].
CASE STUDIES
Case study 1:
A construction site for a new industrial facility reached its peak manning level and the site was very busy with multiple trades involved across several work fronts. As work progressed a number of near-miss incidents occurred, including working at height risks. The incidents occurred largely due to changes in access and egress arrangements via temporary scaffolding structures.
The site was shut down and work suspended while it was rearranged into a number of separate areas, each with individually controlled access. This prevented workers taking short cuts through areas that were subject to frequent change of use and risk; it limited the requirement for communication about day-to-day changes to fewer people; it reduced the likelihood of unexpected interfaces with different work crews and it made management of emergency evacuation requirements more straightforward. The overall result was a far safer work environment and a dramatic reduction in safety incidents for the remainder of the project.
Case study 2:
A tourism location had limited space in its car park for vehicle movements, particularly as many visitors arrived by coach. This resulted in a risk to pedestrians while vehicles were turning. When the site experienced significant growth in visitor (and associated vehicle) numbers, this risk was considered too high. The site was redesigned with a new exit made to allow once-through passage of coaches and removing the need to reverse. The vehicle risk was reduced significantly.
(2)
Safe plant
(a)
Plant defined
Plant is defined in the Act to include:
• 
any machinery, vehicle, vessel, aircraft, equipment (including PPE), appliance, container, implement, or tool;
• 
any component of any of those things; and
• 
anything fitted or connected to any of those things.
Some things not ordinarily thought of as plant are included in this definition and “plant” should be given a broad interpretation.
Some of the practicable ways to achieve safe plant are set out below.
(b)
Using certified plant and original equipment manufacturer (OEM) spare parts and following specified maintenance procedures
Ways to ensure that plant is safe are:
• 
Specify and buy or hire plant and equipment that is certified as conforming with relevant standards. There are numerous national and international standards covering different aspects of safety and health (as well as environmental and other factors) so it is important to have a level of understanding of which ones are applicable to a particular situation. Some standards may be specified by WorkSafe as “Safe Work Instruments” using powers in regulations that have the effect of making them officially sanctioned. For example, the Australian machinery guarding Standard AS 4024 is seen as the benchmark against which any item of plant or equipment will be assessed. Particular care should be taken with imported plant that claims equivalence with a recognised standard. Numerous examples have been found of non-conforming plant that requires expensive retrospective guarding, rewiring or control of contaminants. Equally, where different parts of a production line are sourced separately there may be interoperability risks. Where appropriate a contract condition should specify third party certification that the plant, as installed, meets the standard.
• 
Follow the maintenance programme described by the manufacturer.
• 
Arrange for third party design approval and in service inspection of safety-critical items such as cranes, lifting gear or pressure vessels. Requirements in some regulations (such as the Health and Safety in Employment (Pressure Equipment, Cranes and Passenger Ropeways) Regulations 1999), now come under the HSW Act. New regulations for this area are planned for 2018.
• 
Only use spare parts supplied by the original equipment manufacturer or certified as meeting the manufacturer’s specifications and using approved service technicians, for example for explosion protected electrical equipment.
• 
Ensure that anything fitted or connected to the plant is similarly certified and maintained.
(c)
Using second-hand plant
When buying second-hand plant it may be practicable to:
• 
Obtain a report that the plant conforms with current legal requirements for plant of this specific type. Such a report should be provided by an independent person with appropriate training and qualifications.
• 
Search the Internet for an appropriate maintenance programme, or obtain such a programme from the vendor.
• 
Use spare parts sold by a reputable supplier.
• 
Ensure that anything fitted or connected to the plant is appropriately certified and maintained.
A competent tradesperson or company providing maintenance services may be able to provide guidance on relevant standards, maintenance or spare parts. For high-risk plant you should check the certificates and experience of such a person before relying on their guidance.
Note that the standard that older equipment was manufactured to may no longer be sufficient to meet duties under the HSW Act. It will be for the user to determine whether retrofitting additional safety features, such as a braked motor on woodworking machinery, is technically possible, cost effective and will not cause other safety issues. There is no derogation for older equipment to have a lower standard of health and safety where it is reasonably practicable to upgrade it. In many instances it may be cheaper and easier to purchase new equipment that has been designed to meet the current requirements than to try to modify something and undertake a retrofit that is fundamentally unsuitable.
See [9.6.1] for case notes on the first prosecution under the HSW Act which concerned an unbranded and unguarded plastic extrusion machine. A worker lost most of his hand in the auger at the base of the machine, after being dragged in while emptying plastic into the top of the machine.
(3)
Safe structures
(a)
Structures defined
Structure is defined in the Act as:
• 
anything that is constructed, whether fixed, movable, temporary, or permanent; and
• 
includes:
– 
buildings, masts, towers, frameworks, pipelines, quarries, bridges, and underground works (including shafts or tunnels); and
– 
any component of a structural; and
– 
part of a structure.
Some things not ordinarily thought off as structures are included in this definition and “structure” should be given a broad interpretation. Some of the ways of achieving safe structures are set out below.
(b)
Compliance with design requirements
Structures must comply with specific design requirements under other legislation, such as the Building Act 2004 (which defines a “building” as a type of structure). This will cover certain requirements relating to safety such as seismic standards, fire protection and general ventilation.
In such cases, copies of the design specifications and certificate of compliance should be held on file as evidence that the structure and any alterations have a code compliance certificate. Subsequent alterations or maintenance should also be kept on file.
The building owner should keep these copies of the design specifications and certificate of compliance but some documents may be kept by the architect, engineer or builder, or the district council.
Changes to the building by a tenant should be approved in writing by the owner or the owner’s representative (e.g. architect, engineer) and any requirements of the district council complied with.
Temporary works such as scaffold, formwork (concrete shuttering) or falsework should be designed and erected by competent people. Generally there should be a formal handover process or permit to load or permit to strike once the structure has achieved the recommended strength to be self-supporting and to take any imposed loads.
Consideration should be given to factors such as wind loading (especially for a sheeted scaffold or “shrink wrap”), and other potential for damage causing structural collapse (for example racking in a warehouse) and applied loads.
(c)
Absence of evidence of compliance
In cases when such evidence of compliance is not available, typical with older buildings, a competent person should be asked by the building owner to inspect the structure and provide a report showing that it is safe for the intended use. Any reasonably practicable recommendations for compliance with a good design standard should be carried out and a record of such changes kept on file.
A key challenge for PCBUs with responsibility for managing or controlling workplaces exists where the building may be compliant with the Building Act 2004 from some time in the past when it was designed, but is not as safe as reasonably practicable for current use. In such circumstances the PCBU should consider carefully what it is reasonable to do to upgrade the building.
Changes to the building by a tenant should be approved in writing by the owner or the owner’s representative (e.g. architect, engineer) and any requirements of the district council complied with.
The overlap between the Building Act 2004 and the HSW Act in relation to seismic risks is a complex issue. In general, duties under the HSW Act extend to matters such as bracing of internal fixtures and fittings, whilst the general duty to provide a safe workplace may impact on decisions about whether an earthquake prone building is safe to occupy, pending remediation. WorkSafe has issued a Position Statement on this issue and it is available on their website.
(4)
Safe systems of work
(a)
What is a safe system of work?
The phrase “safe system of work” is not defined in the HSW Act. It is generally taken to be a description of how work gets done without harming anyone and is based on:
• 
an assessment of each stage or task of the work to be done and the context within which it occurs; and
• 
a clear understanding of the risks it poses to the health or safety of workers.
The safe system of work then sets out the precautions needed to eliminate or minimise those risks, including how the work can be done without people being harmed. Sometimes elimination or reduction of risks can lead to the redesign of a job or project in a way that is more efficient.
A safe system of work is sometimes incorporated into a standard operating procedure (SOP) for routine tasks so that the correct way of doing the job to meet safety, quality, environmental and other requirements is integrated. For one-off or short duration tasks a job safety analysis (JSA), task analysis or similar process will fulfil the PCBU’s duty to provide a safe system of work.
With increasingly multi-ethnic workforces with variable standards of language and literacy it is vital that the information, in whatever form provided, is readily understandable by those who need to use it. Translations, use of images or pictograms, video clips, simple language and avoiding slang or highly technical terms will help people who need to use the information to understand it. All too often documents are written for auditors and hence fail to be effective where they are needed most.
(b)
When is a safe system of work needed?
An effective risk assessment will show when a documented safe system of work is needed. After risks have been assessed the safe system of work can be written down, including any controls needed to eliminate or minimise the risk, so far as is reasonably practicable.
The PCBU must monitor the safe system of work in action. They should also periodically review it to see if anything has changed or if the safe system of work could be improved.
Workers, including workers employed by a contractor, must be involved in the development of the system to ensure it is going to work in practice and they should be trained and supervised in the work covered by the safe system of work.
Safe systems of work are typically prepared for high-risk tasks so they are done efficiently and effectively. Sometimes, a safe system of work (or SOP, as explained above) will be prepared for a low-risk job, perhaps because workers are not skilled or the job is carried out infrequently.
Common examples of high-risk activities or situations include:
• 
changes to established or business-as-usual activities, such as changes to plant, substances or structures;
• 
maintenance work on plant or structures;
• 
complex crane lifts;
• 
vehicle movements onto, around and away from a site, including loading and unloading;
• 
contractors coming on site to carry out physical work that could result in harm to workers;
• 
lone working on site at night or weekends or at any time away from the usual workplace;
• 
entry into confined spaces (see AS/NZS 2865: 2001 Safe working in a confined space); and
• 
temporary workplaces at a height (e.g. on a roof or ladder).
(c)
Types of safe systems of work
The risk assessment should show how formal the safe system of work needs to be. The following are common types of safe system of work.
Verbal instructions
For low-risk activities a verbal safe system of work may be sufficient. For example, if workers are experienced in the type of job they will carry out they may only need to be given verbal instructions that are sufficient to get the job done. This may be in a pre-start briefing or tool box talk. This may not be acceptable if a job is out of the ordinary or a contractor has been asked to do the work.
Written standard operating procedure
Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are sometimes called safe operating procedures or safe working procedures and are an important means of providing information about work practices. Some jobs will require a written SOP if the objectives of the job are to be achieved. The SOP should be developed after a risk assessment and in consultation with the workers who will carry out the work. Such engagement will help ensure the workers’ agreement with and understanding of the content of the SOP. In some PCBUs, the full written SOP is in a training manual which is used to train new workers or carry out refresher training. It can also be used to monitor and audit whether the system is being followed correctly. At the place where the job is carried out there should be a checklist, based on the full procedure that can be used by workers as a reminder of the correct steps and the correct sequence of steps. For example, an item of plant may require a start up and shutdown procedure and this would form part of a SOP.
Method statement
A method statement is a detailed description of how high-risk work will be carried out. Often, a method statement will form part of an overall project plan provided by a contractor. However, a method statement forming part of a proposal may give assurance to the client that the contractor has sufficient experience to know how to describe their work. Method statements might also form part of work planning within a PCBU if work of a particular type is high-risk and carried out infrequently. In large projects there may be several method statements that set out how work will be done through a series of stages.
In Australia there are statutory requirements for the production of Safe Work Method Statements (SWMS) for certain high-risk construction tasks. For example, as set out in s 291 of the Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011 (ACT). These include:
• 
risk of a person falling more than two metres;
• 
work on a telecommunication tower;
• 
temporary load-bearing support for structural alterations or repairs;
• 
demolition of a load-bearing structure;
• 
work likely to involve disturbing asbestos;
• 
use of explosives;
• 
work in or near a confined space;
• 
work in or near a shaft or trench deeper than 1.5m or a tunnel;
• 
work on or near pressurised gas mains or piping;
• 
work on or near chemical, fuel or refrigerant lines;
• 
work on or near energised electrical installations or services;
• 
work in an area that may have a contaminated or flammable atmosphere;
• 
tilt-up or precast concrete elements;
• 
work on, in or adjacent to a road, railway, shipping lane or other traffic corridor in use by traffic other than pedestrians;
• 
work in an area with movement of powered mobile plant;
• 
work in areas with artificial extremes of temperature;
• 
work in or near water or other liquid that involves a risk of drowning; and
• 
diving work.
Guidance from Safe Work Australia states that a SWMS must:
• 
identify the work;
• 
specify hazards relating to the work and the risks to health and safety;
• 
describe the measures to be implemented to control the risks; and
• 
describe how the control measures are to be implemented, monitored and reviewed.
A SWMS should be short and focus on describing the specific hazards identified for the high-risk work to be undertaken and the control measures to be put in place so the work is carried out safely.
(Safe Work Method Statement for high-risk Construction Work – Information Sheet, Safe Work Australia, December 2014)
A safe work method statement should include risk controls related to:
• 
access to the site;
• 
security and safety of people off site;
• 
access to the job location;
• 
restriction of access to authorised workers;
• 
training of authorised workers;
• 
plant and equipment to be used or prohibited and storage of plant or equipment;
• 
hazardous substances to be used or prohibited and storage of such materials;
• 
protection of any existing structures on or off site (e.g. shoring, prevention of vibration, impact protection);
• 
emergency escape from the work area or the site;
• 
sequence of high-risk work and integration with other work activities;
• 
fall protection systems;
• 
personal protective equipment;
• 
prevention of pollution on and off site;
• 
compliance with specific regulations, including resource consents; and
• 
when a permit-to-work is required.
This list is not exhaustive and other risk controls may be required.
(d)
Permit-to-work
A permit-to-work system is normally used in high-risk situations where it is necessary to use a highly structured approach to risk control, including third party authority to proceed, and where there is a need to co-ordinate potentially conflicting work activities.
Sometimes, a permit-to-work might be needed if relatively low-risk work to be carried out by a contractor could affect some aspects of work in the PCBU. For example, an electrician might inadvertently interrupt the electricity supply to computers or other plant resulting in loss of data or damage to work in progress, or a fire detection system might need to be temporarily disabled.
If a permit-to-work system is in use on a site, contractors should be told as part of any pre-contract briefing. This will enable them to plan and price their work accordingly.
The permit-to-work policy will:
• 
define the types of high-risk work covered by the policy and that requires a permit before such work starts;
• 
set out site-specific requirements for a risk assessment that must be completed before any permit for such work is issued;
• 
require that some precautions are completed before work starts, other precautions are in place and maintained during the work, and further precautions are put in place on completion of the work;
• 
state how permits will be handed over during a shift change or if the permit holder has to leave the job they are supervising;
• 
specify who in the PCBU will have a role in operation of the policy; and
• 
require training and refresher training of PCBU workers who carry out pre-permit risk assessments, issue permits, receive permits or have some other role in the operation of the policy.
Typical activities that may be subject to permits to work include:
• 
hot work;
• 
work at height (work involving a harness, person riding in crane or other particularly hazardous activities);
• 
deep excavations;
• 
ground penetration (where there is a risk of damaging underground services);
• 
complex crane lifts;
• 
isolation of process plant;
• 
confined space entry; and
• 
work on energised systems.
A permit-to-work system is implemented via a permit form that is completed with the details of the work and the approvals required. Many varieties of permit form are in use, including some electronic ones, and they are usually specific to the risk that they are concerned with – for example, a confined space permit and a working at height permit are usually different forms.
A permit form will typically include the following information:
Table 3.1 – Information in a permit to work form
Administrative
unique number (best automatically generated in an electronic system, or pre-printed in the permit book of a paper system);
 
date and time of issue; and
 
permit expiry date and time.
Work details
description of the work;
 
clear boundaries of the scope of work covered; and
 
risk assessment of the work, including necessary controls (may reference a separate risk assessment).
Risk specific activities
For example, gas monitoring on a confined space permit, or fire watch on a hot work permit
Interface issues
references to isolation certificates if the work needs equipment or process to be isolated; and
 
references to other relevant permits.
Approval details
person in charge of the work site and their signature;
 
person approving the permit and their signature;
 
any pre-work inspection required and associated sign-off; and
 
any ongoing supervision requirements.
Below is a sample permit to work form:
Permit to Work Form – CONFINED SPACE ENTRY
Permit No. 1472
Job Title
Entry into tank to repair stirring system
Part A: Administration
Part C: Authorisation by Permit Issuer (PI)
Application Date
25/3/19
Previous Expired Permit No.
N/A
I authorise work to be undertaken as described on this permit provided that all risks and controls remain the same.
Date Required
29/3/19
 
Isolation Certificate No.
244
Name
Sign
Time
Date
Permit Applicant
D Bishop
Other Relevant Permits in Force
None
Tanya Hoeata
T Hoeata
0800
29/3/19
Person in Charge of Worksite (PICWS)
Steve Fowler
Conditions / Comments
Day shift only
Part B: Work Details
Part D: Endorsement
[Repeat for each day/shift]
Job Description
Open tank 7201-B. Enter tank and cut out seized stirrer. Replace.
I agree that work conditions are as described on this permit and that work will be halted if conditions change.
Risk assessment
Date
Time
PICWS Sign
PI Sign
Activity
Risk
Control(s)
29/3/19
0800
Steve Fowler
T Hoeata
Too many for form. See attached risk assessment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Part E: Completion
 
 
 
The work is complete or suspended (delete one) and the work site made safe
 
 
 
Recovery Plan Approved
Yes/No
Gas Test Frequency Required
Continuous
PICWS Sign:
Date:
PI Sign:
Date:
(e)
Control of contractors – who should provide a safe system of work?
Contractors who are engaged to carry out work for a PCBU should be required to provide a safe system of work.
At its simplest, this might be a verbal agreement covering:
• 
how workers in the PCBU will know what is happening together with when and how the work is to be done;
• 
when the contractor will carry out their work;
• 
where the contractor will carry out work;
• 
how that work will be carried out; and
• 
what must be done before the contractor starts work and after work has finished for the day or the job has been completed.
For more complex work involving several contractors, each should be required to provide a description of how the work will be done and how each contractor will work with each other and other workers already on site.
Consider competence of individual workers. For example, some may have professional or trades training enabling them to safely carry out what would otherwise be high-risk activities. For example, electricians, especially those working on high-voltage systems.
(5)
Welfare
(a)
Facilities for welfare at work
The facilities for welfare at work are set out in the Health and Safety at Work (General Risk and Workplace Management) Regulations 2016. These include:
• 
toilets;
• 
washing facilities;
• 
drinking water;
• 
changing rooms and accommodation for clothing or “uniforms”;
• 
lunch rooms or similar, where food can be eaten and hot drinks prepared; and
• 
quiet spaces and rest facilities.
While the primary purpose of these facilities is welfare, there may be an occupational health component i.e. being able to change out of contaminated clothing and wash hands or the whole body before taking meal breaks or going home.
Suitability, accessibility and maintenance of welfare facilities must be assured and responsibilities agreed where these are shared between different PCBUs.
Arrangements should be made for access to welfare facilities at worksites. Temporary facilities should be provided for worksites, including mobile worksites that are occupied for more than about four hours. For shorter periods it may be acceptable to use public facilities or allow workers to return to base.
(b)
Furniture, fittings and fixtures in buildings
Furniture, fittings and fixtures should be designed, installed and maintained to a reasonable standard. Things that could cause harm might include:

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