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Safeguard OSH Solutions - Thomson Reuters

Safeguard OSH Solutions - Thomson Reuters



Safeguard

Pensions and annuities
Code of ACC Claimants' Rights
Funeral grantIndependence allowanceSurvivor's grantEarnings related compensationLump sum
Capacity for workVocational independence
AdministrationFunding
Accident
Conviction for murderDuring imprisonment
Mental injury caused by criminal acts
Treatment injury
Gradual process, disease, or infection
Pregnancy and birth
Clinical trialExclusionsSubsequent personal injury
AccidentMental injuryPersonal injury by accidentTreatment injury (formerly Medical misadventure)
Appeals against decisionsReview of decisionsPreventative schemes
Law reformRelationship to tortRight to compensation
Reporting and information sharing
PlansSocial rehabilitationTreatmentVocational rehabilitation
DamagesStatutory bar
Registrar
District CourtEmployment CourtFamily CourtHigh Court
Jurisdiction
Open Court
ConfidentialityDischargeMisconductSelectionLegal aid
Disputes Tribunal
Administrative bodiesAdministrative decisions
International human rights lawTreaty of Waitangi
Sub-delegated legislation
Cross examinationDuty of disclosure
Disproportionality
Abuse of discretionary powerFailure to exercise discretionary power
Error of factError of lawImproper purpose
Rule against biasExclusion of rules of natural justiceInconsistencyRight of party affected to be heard
Substantive unfairnessRelevant/irrelevant considerationsRepugnancyUncertaintyUnreasonableness
Judicature Amendment Act 1972
Bodies amenable to reviewOuster clauses
Judicial activismJusticabilityPrinciplesProcedural fairness
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Declaration
Severance of ultra vires provisions
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Clauses
OralWritten
DelayDisputesPartiesProcedureValidity
Time limitFailure to appointNotification
DefaultSubstitute
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Grounds
BasisCostsFeesInterim paymentLien over awardOverpayment
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By actionEntry of award as judgmentFormInterpretationReasons for awardReview
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Jurisdiction
Form
UNCITRAL Model Law
Equal treatment
ConferencesConsolidation
MediatorPartiesSettlement
LiabilityPolice
Use of forceRoyal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RNZSPCA)
Animal exports
National Animal Ethics Advisory CommitteeNational Animal Welfare Advisory Committee
InspectionObligations of owners and of persons in charge of animalsSafari parksSurgical proceduresTransport of animals
Minimum standards
Ill-treatment of animalsTraps and devicesEnforcement ordersOffences
DefinitionDestructionDisposal
Attack
DangerousMenacing
BarkingInfringement offences
Powers
DestructionDisability assistDisease
Retention
DisqualifiedLiabilityProbationaryRequirementsPoliceRegistrationSeizure
BreedingCodes of welfareCompanion animalsKennels and catteries
CattlePigsPoultrySheepCommercial slaughterHomekillMinimum standards
LegislationTreaties and conventions
Liability
CircusRacingRodeo
Criminal
Animal welfareEndangered speciesGreat apesHunting and fishing
GovernmentalNon-governmentalMarine mammals
Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA)Zoos, animals parks and aquariums
Animal Ethics CommitteesCodes of ethical conductIndependent reviewMinister's powersPrinciples
Assessment
Trespass rates
Right to destroy trespassing animals
Code of conductMedicines
ConservationControl
Procedure
Regulation
Credit
Powers and dutiesRegulation
Socially responsible investment
InstitutionsTerms of credit
Property
Acts of bankruptcyCreditor application for adjudication
Defective noticeRequirements and form of notice
Ex parte James ruleJoint family homesLawyer's costs
Completed execution or attachmentUncompleted execution or attachmentProperty devolving under a will or intestacyProvision for bankrupt
Occupational or workplace schemesPersonal superannuation schemes
Anti-deprivation rule
Maori Land Court
Power to disclaim onerous property
CreditorsProceedingsSecured creditorsTransactions
Compromises with creditorsPrioritiesProofSet-off
Annulment
Personal claimsProprietary claims
AdministrationCreditor interestsCreditors' remedies
Government
Detterence
Exclusion of evidence
Electoral rightsFreedom of associationFreedom of expressionFreedom of movementFreedom of peaceful assemblyInconsistency
Competing rightsJustified limitations
Freedom from discrimination
Refusal of medical treatmentTorture or cruel treatment
Liberty of personMinimum standards of criminal procedureRetroactive penalties and double jeopardyRight to justiceRights of persons arrested or detained
Reasonableness
Consent
Building Act 2004Building CodeSchedules
Compliance certificate
Leaky buildingsInspection
National Building CodeNotice to fix
BarriersFireHazardsMeasures
Access
DemolitionEarthquake proneInsanitarySafety measures
Advancement of educationAdvancement of religionBeneficial to community
Poor, aged and impotentReliefPublic benefitRelief of poverty
Powers and functions
TaxationFundraisingHistory
Ancillary
Ancillary pupose
Public and inclusiveRegister
BenefitsRegulation
Charitable trustsIncorporated societies
Jurisdiction
Court of AppealPrinciplesQuestion of law
Appearance
Full disclosureFor account or inquiry
Without noticeOriginatingReviewTo strike out
Ability to payAgreementApplication
Discontinued proceedingsJudicial discretion
Interlocutory proceedingsDisbursementsIn advanceIncreasedIndemnityInterestNon-partiesRecoveryReducedScaleSecurity for costsSolicitor/clientThird parties
Courts of recordDefinition
Abuse of processOpen Court
CivilDistict CourtDistrict CourtsHigh CourtSupreme CourtTribunals
DiscoveryFiling
AffidavitsLanguage
Outside jurisdiction
CommencementDirectionsFixture
Accounts and inquiriesJury trialPre-trial conferenceTimetabling
InterimInterlocutoryMarevaPermanentPreservation orderQuia timetVariation
AppointmentAvailabilityImmunity from proceedingsPower to control proceedingsPrecedentRemoval
Actions on judgmentsDefault
InterrogatoriesEffectEstoppelExecutionForeignInterestOn admissionsSatisfaction and set-offSealingVerdict
Basis
Court of AppealDistrict CourtHigh CourtOusterForum conveniensInherent
CostsLitigation funding
AncillaryArrest of defendantChargingDeclaratoryExecution
AssetsThird partiesInterim payment
Property or fundRestrainingSearchSuppressionUndertakingsVariation
AppearanceCapacityDefendantsJoiningPlaintiffs
Litigation guardianSelf-representationStandingSubstitutionThird party
AdmissionAmendmentCause of actionCounterclaimDefamationFormHypotheticalObjectionParticularsSet-offStatement of defenceStriking out
Finality
Abuse of processAssignmentCase statedClass actionCommencementConsolidationContempt of CourtDiscontinuanceInterpleaderInterventionLanguageNonsuitNoticeRelatorRemovalRepresentative actionRes judicataStaySubdivisionWant of prosecutionRemedies
Calderbank lettersPayment into CourtSummary judgment
ComputationExtension
Discoverability
Fiduciary dutiesReal estate agentsScope
RemediesCompetition
Disclosure of assignments
Consumer guarantees
OppressionFair trading
Liability of guarantorPersonal guarantees
Business interruptionDebtsMortgagees' interest
Character merchandising
International trade
Overseas investment
GuaranteeRedemptionUnconscionable bargain
Acceptable qualityContracting outDescription of goodsFitness for purpose
Non-deliveryOwnership of propertyPassing of propertyRejection of goodsNon-deliveryOwnership of propertyPassing of propertyRejection of goodsRescissionReservation of title clausesSale by descriptionSale by sampleTitleUnascertained goods
PrioritySecurity interest
InterceptionInternet
Liability
Interception of communicationsOffences
EffectLegitimacyContracts
Appointment of managersDuties of managersRemoval of managersRights of managersPowersRegistrationRegulation
Duties of shareholdersLiabilities of shareholdersRights of shareholders
Company constitutions (formerly Articles of association)ContractsExternal litigationNamesPowers
Nature of a company
Capital
Floating chargesFinancial Markets Authority (formerly Securities Commission)Securities
Allotment and issueCallsCharacterClasses of shares and shareholdersDividendsTransfer
Corporate residency
IncorporationPromotion
Accounts and audit
AppointmentDisqualificationDutiesFiduciary dutiesInterests
CivilCriminalPersonalRemovalRemunerationResignationRetirementRights
External regulationFinancial reportingInspection of recordsInterests registerLodgement of returnsMeetings
DutiesLiabilitiesRights
AdministratorDeed of arrangement
By CourtDuties and liabilitiesPowers
Derivative actions
Functions of Financial Markets Authority (formerly Securities Commission)Offences
Financial Markets AuthorityFinancial Markets Authority (formerly Securities Commission)
Amalgamation
AnnouncementOffer
EffectGrounds
Application for directionsDissolutionMeetings of creditorsProceedings by or against companyProof and ranking of claimsTrust assets
AppointmentDuties and liabilitiesQualificationRemovalRemunerationReports, Books, Accounts, Audit
Distribution of assetsVacancy
Resolutions
Early constitutions
Representation of the people
Freedom from arrest
AdherenceCharacteristicsCodificationEstablishmentIdentificationMinisterial responsibility
FoundationsLimitations
EntrenchmentStruggle for supremacyTensions between courts and parliament
Access to CrownAdministration of justice
ProceduresFreedom of speechJurisdictional clash between courts and parliamentParliamentary privilegePenal powersRight to favourable constructionRight to judge own proceedingsRight to regulate own compositionStatutory basis
Relationship with the lawRetrospectivity
British historical experienceCivil disobedienceConceptsConflict with welfare state concept
ApplicationsMarxist critiqueMinority rightsSupranational concept
Separation of powersTypesWestminster convention
Constitutional reviewsDevolution form BritainDevolution from BritainEarly constitutionsFrom colony to dominiumInfluencesInheritance and innovationRepresentative governmentResponsible government
Mixed member proportional representation (MMP)
Acquisition of sovereigntyFrom discovery to colonyImperium and dominion
Absorption
Cabinet
Determinate personaIndeterminate personaExecutive CouncilGovernor-GeneralHead of StatePublic service
Appointments processCommon lawComplaints processCourt systemIndependenceJudicial independenceJudicial powerJudicial supremacyJurisdiction
Ad hominem legislationDelegated legislationManner and form requirements
Extra-territorial legislationValidity
Principle of non-interferenceValidity
Regulations Review Committee
Appointment of the Prime MinisterDoctrine of necessityForcing a dissolution of parliamentMisleading usageRecourse of last resortReformsRefusal of a request for dissolutionRefusing the royal assentResignation of the Prime MinisterRoyal powers
ClassesJudicial review
Letters patentPrerogative of mercy
Seal of New Zealand
Government Communications Security BureauNew Zealand Security Intelligence Service
ChargesReview of decisionsWithholding information
Procedure
Control and scrutinyDefining parliamentLegislationMembers' pecuniary interestsNatural justice procedures
AppointmentAttorney-GeneralChief Parliamentary CounselClerk of the House of RepresentativesController and Auditor-General (Auditor-General)Parliamentary Commissioner for the EnvironmentSerjeant-at-ArmsSolicitor-GeneralStatus
Office of the Clerk of the House of RepresentativesParliamentary Counsel OfficeParliamentary Service
RulesProviding and determining governmentRepresentation of the peopleTaxation and public expenditureUnicameralismWestminster parliament origins
ReferendaSources
Acts Interpretation Amendment Act 1986Citizens Initiated Referenda Act 1993Constitution Act 1986Crown Proceedings Act 1950Electoral Act 1956Electoral Act 1993Human Rights Act 1993Legislature Act 1908New Zealand Bill of Rights 1990New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990New Zealand Constitution Act 1852New Zealand Constitution Act 1952New Zealand Constitution Amendment Act 1857Official Information Act 1982Ombudsmen Act 1975Public Audit Act 2001Public Finance Act 1989Royal Powers Act 1983Royal Titles Act 1974Seal of New Zealand Act 1977Statute of Westminster 1931 (UK)
DiceyHartKelsenLocke
Status
Accord and satisfaction
Determination
QuantumPromissory estoppelRectificationRescissionSpecific performance
DuressFraudMisrepresentationMistakeUndue influenceFraudMisrepresentationMistake
Part performance
Incorporation into contractOrdinary and natural meaningExclusionary provisionsExemption clausesExpress termsImplied termsIntention of partiesPenalties and liquidated damagesRestraint of trade clausesWarranties
Novation
AffirmationIntention
AdequacyBills of exchangePremiums
Terms
Tenders
EffectRemedies
Severability
AgencyCapacityJointMinorsPrivityThird partiesThird-parties
Contributory negligenceFailurePartial
CancellationDefinitionEffect
Anticipatory breachDelayFrustrationMisrepresentationMistakeRepudiationRescission
Distinctions
Prisoners' rightsName suppression
Compliance monitoringGPS monitoringResidential restrictionsStandard release conditionsVariation
Early considerationPre-commencement date sentence
Legislation
Compassionate releaseFunctionsGuiding principles
Waiver
Availability to offendersConfidentiality ordersMedia involvementNoticeProcedureStructured decision-makingVideo conference
Availability to offendersConfidentiality ordersPostponement ordersProceduresReview of decisionStructure
AppealReviewReview by the Parole Board
ProcedureInterim recall order
Appeals
Release planRevocation or amendmentUndue riskRelease planSupervision
Procedure
Information and noticeSubmissionsVictim Notification Register (VNR)
Information and notice
Support persons
Victim impactCosts ordersDeterrence
With convictionWithout convictionDisputed factsDiversion
Eligibility
Notice for special conditionsReviewSuspensionVariation or discharge
IndicationLife sentenceMental disorderMinimum period of imprisonmentPolicyPre-sentence reportPreventive detentionProcedureReparationReportsRestorative justiceShort-term sentence
Eligibility
Notice for special conditionsReviewSuspensionVariation or discharge
Totality principle
Alternative action/diversionInternational instruments
Safeguards
Citizen's arrest
Exercise of discretion
ApplicationBondsConditionsElectronic monitoringPrinciples
Appeals
AggravatedExemplaryQuantumInjunction
Absence of faultAutomatismAutrefois acquitAutrefois convictBattered woman's syndromeClaim of rightCompulsionConsentDefence of propertyDuressHonest beliefImpossibilityInfancyInsanityIntoxicationJustificationMistakeNecessityParental controlProvocationSelf-defenceDefinition
Procedure
Contents of case filesDatabases of drug seizures
Documents available
Suspect under 17
Information recording
Chain of custodyPackagingPoliceReporting results
Destruction of itemsPackaging drug seizures
Accessing computer systemsCovertInterception of communications
Warrant
CausationOmissions
Common intentionStrict
ForfeitureInterception warrantsSupply
Absolute liabilityAccessory after the factAgainst administration of justiceAiding or abetting
AggravatedMale assaults femaleOn a childAttemptBatteryBurglaryCategoryCausing disease or sickness in animals
Halfway-houseStatus (regulatory) offencesWilful offencesWithout reasonable excuseComputersConspiracyContempt of courtConversion
Trade marksCriminal breach of trustCriminal nuisanceCulpable homicide
Duty to have and use reasonable knowledge, skill and careDefamation
Actus reusConcurrence
IntentKnowledgeMistakeNegligence
Failure to protect child or vulnerable adult
To vulnerable adultFemale genital mutilation
Obtaining by deceptionGrievous bodily harmInfantcide
Aggravated wounding or injuryBy unlawful actWith intent to injureInterception devicesKilling unborn childMaking intimate visual recordingManslaughterMoney launderingMurder
Breach of order
To child under 16To vulnerable adultParticipation in organised criminal group
IncitingInnocent
ReceivingReckless ill-treatment of an animalRecklessnessSetting traps
Inducing by coercion
ConsentHistoricalIncest
With child under 12With young person under 16Indecent assaultIndecent publicationsMeeting young person following sexual groomingRape
ConsentGenuine medical purposesWith child under 12With dependent family memberWith young person under 16Sexual exploitation of person with significant impairment
Attempts
BestialityIndecency
Strict liabilitySuicide
Biological
Of animals
To cause grievous bodily harmTo killTrade mark infringementTrespassVicarious liabilityWilful ill-treatment of an animalWoundingWrongful communication, retention, or copying of official information
Harm principle
ExceptionsOffence principle
Forfeiture orderRestraining orderSearch warrant
Animal welfareCopyright infringementDog controlPatent infringementVictim compensation
Status of young people
Alternative action/diversion'Children'
PlanProcedureStatutory functionMinimum age'Young persons'
EffectsImprisonmentPre-trial custodyPurposeSupervision with residence orderElectionInternational instruments
ArrestCollection and storage of identifying particulars
Explanation of rightsLegal assistanceNominated personSafeguards
Law reformMaori perspectivePolicy
Doli incapax
DeclarationPolice referralHomicideSafeguardsSerious and/or persistent offending
JudgeOrdersSanctions
Abuse of process
Re-trialAdjournment
Abandonment
Appeal out of timeSolicitor-General's reference
Costs orderRelated appealsSubmissions
By prosecution
Case management
AmendmentDismissalSubstitution
ServiceDischargeDisclosure
Location of hearing
Reasons
Majority
CriminalDistrict CourtHigh CourtTerritorialityTribunalsYouth CourtLimitation period
Application to vacate guilty pleaFitness to pleadPreliminary hearingPretrial application
Restorative justice
DutiesReformSearch of Court recordsSeveranceSummary proceedingsSumming-upSummonsTransfer of proceedings
Absence
Grounds of insanityRe-trialCourtroom filmingDefence conductFair trialFitnessInterpreter assistanceJoinderJudge-alone
CalloverMisdirectionProsecution conductRemote participationRepresentationUnfit to stand trial
Role in proceedings
Prohibited
AssignmentDurationSecurity bond
Forfeiture
Availability
Student loans
Counselling
Privacy
Appointment
Scope of employment
Inducement
BargainingContract for servicesGood faithRestraint of trade clauseTerms and conditions
Human Rights Act 1993Sexual harassment
Alternative dispute resolutionConciliators
Compliance with settlement termsCosts
BargainingGood faithImplied termsInterpretationNegotiationRestraint of tradeTermination
Confidential informationDuty of fidelityEmployee
IdentityIndependent contractors
CopyrightPrivacy
All practicable stepsAt work
OffencesExemptionsHazard
Enforceable undertakings
Medical examination of workersPower of entry and inspectionPower to suspend workImprovement and non-disturbance notices
Enforceable undertakingsImprovement and non-disturbance notices
Offences
Aircraft or ship
CostsFinesReparationSentencing
Offences
AsbestosOffences and penaltiesOil and gas
Duty of workersDuty to engage with workers
Failure to comply with health and safety duty exposing a person to risk of death or serious injury
Failure to comply with health and safety duty exposing a person to risk of death or serious injuryReckless conduct in respect of health and safety duty exposing a person to risk of death or serious injury/illnessReckless conduct in respect of health and safety duty exposing a person to risk of death or serious
Farming
Due diligenceDuty to volunteersManagement or control of fixtures, fittings or plantManagement or control of workplace
Due DiligenceReasonably practicable testPCBUs that design plants, substances or structuresPCBUs that import plant, substances or structuresPCBUs that install, construct or commission plant or structuresPCBUs that manufacture plant, substances or structuresPCBUs that supply plant, substances or structures
Reasonably practicable testWorker accommodation
Duty to notify regulator of notifiable eventDuty to preserve sitesDuty to volunteers
Training
Codes of practiceFunctionsGuidelinesPowers
Employment Relations AuthorityKiwiSaver
Public holidaysParental leave
Compensation
AgeDuressProceduresSexual harassmentUnjustified dismissal
Proceedings
DamagesReinstatement
Discretionary remunerationSuperannuation
Health and safety committeesRepresentative powersUnions and bargaining agents
DefinedEssential industry or servicesLegality
Drugs
CompulsorySerious misconductSummary dismissal
Unlawful meansUnlawful purposeInterference with contractual relations by unlawful meansLockoutStrikeUnlawful interference with economic relations
Conduct away from the workplace
PollutionQuality
AdaptationGreenhouse gas emissionsMitigation
AntarcticaConcessionsConservation areasConservation boardsDepartment of ConservationEcosystemsHistoric placesManagement planningMarginal stripsNew Zealand Conservation AuthorityPest managementQueen Elizabeth II National TrustSpecially protected areasSpeciesSports, fish, and game councils
Economic incentivesEndangered species
Renewable sourcesEnvironmental ethics
AgenciesCustomary lawInternational agreementsLaw reformNational environmental standardsResource managementTreaty of Waitangi
Environmental Defence SocietyRoyal Forest and Bird Protection Society
Environment CourtHigh Court
National policy statementsEnvironmental reporting
IndigenousHazardous substances
Use
Access to natural resourcesCustomary interests, rights and valuesCustomary use
FishMarine mammalsRangersMinerals
AdministrationConservation management strategiesDog controlWilderness areasNew organisms
FunctionsPollution
Intergenerational equityPrivate v public interest
Sustainable development
Right to clean environmentWaste
Exclusive economic zoneJurisdictional boundariesPollution
Marine reserves
Boundaries and governance
Sustainable management
Oil spillsQuality
AssignmentCharges and liens
Obligation of confidenceQuality of confidenceUnauthorised use of information
Information in public domainOverriding public interestRelationship of confidenceUnconscionability
Damages
AcquiescenceChange of positionClean handsDelayIllegalityLachesSet-offUndue hardship
Belief or expectationDetriment
By conventionRepresentationSilence
Breach
Informed consent to actContracting outNo profit principleTests
Relief against forfeitureFraudInterestsMistake
ContractsEnforcementLand
Interpretation
Clean handsEquality is equityNo assistance to volunteersRelationship with common lawRelationships
CalculationConstructive trust
Adequacy
Compensatory damagesSubstitutionary damages
Equitable compensationEquitable liens
Reliance-based remedy
AssetsThird parties
Breach
Hardship
Overall justice of caseInjunction on terms
MandatoryPerpetualQuia timet injunctionsSearch ordersSearch orders (formerly Anton Piller orders)UndertakingsVariation
MarshallingRectificationRescission
Disgorgement
Proprietary
Real possibility of destruction of materialSerious damageStrong prima facie caseUse of materialSpecific performanceSubrogation
DefencesEntitlement to tracePrinciples
Special disadvantageUnconscionable advantage-taking
Actual undue influence
Informed and independent adviceRelationship of trust and confidencePresumed undue influence
Third party recipients
Holding a view
New evidence in re-trial
Self incriminationSavings provisions
Drink drivingNon-drink drivingEffectsInformation obtained
HospitalCalculationsPost-mortem
Timeline of events
DNAHairsMedical examination kits
BloodSalivaSemen and its components
Condoms and lubricantsTransfer and persistence
BloodstainsCase types
Case typesCrash investigatorsDifficulties in court settingGathering scene dataIssuesRelevant legislationToolsVideoing scenes and locationsCriminal disclosure
Case typesFabricPhysical fits
Duty of disclosureInspection of documents
AnswersNoticeOrder
Grounds for resisting productionPublic interest immunity
Age and origin of documents and inkAlterationsCase typesCurrent issuesPhysical features in documentsQualifications and experience of examinersTypewritten and printed documentsWith fingerprint examination and DNA analysis
AffidavitsAgreed statement of factsWritten briefs
Case types
EntomologyGeology and soilsHydrologyPalynologyPedology and edaphologyScene and evidence preservation
BiasCode of conductDuty to court
ErrorIncomplete or alteredInterpretationLimits
Understandable to lay audienceTypes of expert
Case typesFact versus opinionTechnical issues
ExplosivesQualifications and experience of investigators
Signatures
Accuracy of imagesCase types and case assistanceExpertsFacial and body comparisons in courtProcessing techniquesStandards and reportingStorage times of dataTranscripts and video interviews
Case typesFabricFirearmsFootwearPlastic bags and food wrapTools
Case types
Forensic pathologyInjuriesSexual assault and sexual abuse
Case types
CannabisHeroinMethamphetamineSynthetic drugs and compoundsIdentification of drug
Mode
Cross-examinationPrinciples
Communication to medical practitioner
Reversal
Balance of probabilitiesBeyond reasonable doubt
Duties
Assessing investigative processChildren, adolescents and other vulnerable witnessesCounter-intuitive evidenceInstructing a psychologist or psychiatristMemoryRelevance
Real possibility of destruction of materialSerious damageStrong prima facie caseUse of material
ParticipantThird partyVideoInterception of communicationsTracking devices
Drug interactions
Accidental contamination
DatabasesIdentification of crime stains for DNA analysisIts use in investigating crimeMethods of analysisMixed profilesRecovery, transfer and persistenceReference samplesSamples that can be analysedTime required to generate profileOther bodily fluids
Case typesCollection
Condoms and lubricantsFibresGlassPaint and surface coatingsPersistenceQualifications and experience of expertsTransfer between items
AnonymityBriefs of evidenceCreditabilityFailure to appearFormal statements
Medical treatmentWelfare and best interests of the childWishes of child
Investigation of ill-treatment or neglectConfidentialityFamily group conference
Family CourtYouth CourtPolice powersPress reportingYouth advocate
Criminal law
Contributions to propertyEquitable reliefJoint ownership
Common intentionReasonable expectations
Protection orderFamily proceedings
Best interests of the child
High Court
Minors
BankruptcyJoint family homePre-nuptial agreement
DispositionEffect of taxationOwnership or titleRelationship of short duration
Intention of parties
Unborn child
Medical treatment
BailFamily group conference recommendationsName suppressionProcedureRights of accusedSentencing
Licence conditionsRecovery of improperly paid net proceeds
Certificates of approval
ExpiryRenewalSuitability requirements
Class 1 gamblingClass 2 gambling
Class 3 licence applicant suitability
Gaming machine number limits
Costs
Authorised purposeGrant conditionsRacing grantsKey personsTerritorial authority consentVenue payments
Territorial authority consent
Age restrictionCreditDuty to provide ongoing assistanceExclusion ordersHarm minimisation policyMachine information displayProblem gambling awareness trainingProblem gambling informationRestriction on casino brandingRestriction on jackpot advertisingSignageStake and prize limitsHarm minimization requirementsLicence
Game of chanceHousieInstant gamePrize competition
Online gamblingOverseas gamblingSales promotion schemesSpot prizes
Gambling Commission
Club membership drawsPrizesSales promotion schemes
Advertising overseas gamblingAge restriction violationConducting remote interactive gamblingIllegal game of chanceIllegal prizesProhibited publicationsProhibition on improper conditions
New Zealand Racing BoardRace clubs
Territorial authority consentRace clubs
Totalisator Agency Board
Alcoholism and drug addiction
ComplaintsRemedies
Provider
Complementary and alternative medicineComplianceLiabilityReview
ComplaintDignity and independenceFully informed
CompetenceStandard of careTeaching and research
Breach
Burial and cremation
Assessment
InquiryPost-mortem examinationsReformRole
Brain-stem deathPersistent vegetative state/post-coma unresponsiveness
Culpability
Causation
OffencesPreparationStandards
Apprehension and detentionCompulsory assessment processJustification of necessityReview proceduresRights of family or whanauRights of the patient
Consent
Transfer procedure
Pre-trial remandReviewInvoluntary treatment or care
DispositionReview
Definition and assessmentSpecial and compulsory careMentally impaired persons
Appeals
InvestigationMediation conferencesRole
Assessment
Duty to inform
AppealsGrounds for disciplinePenalties
Burden and standard of proofDirector of ProceedingsProfessional Conduct CommitteeProfessional standardsPurpose
ConstitutionObligations and liabilitiesPowers and functionsInfectious diseasesPublic
Duties of persons collecting or using human tissueInformed consentInformed objectionMinorsOverriding objectionDefinition
Legal statusPurposeReformScope
Definition
Detention and isolationNotification
Clinical practice guidelines
Enduring power of attorneyInformed consent
CapacityMinorsRight to refuse medical treatment
Justifications
Common law dutiesGross negligenceStatutory duties
Active conductCriminal liabilityLawful excuse
Protection from criminal responsibility
Discretion to discloseDuty to discloseNon-consensual disclosure
DisclosurePrivilege
ComplaintsRequest by third party
ExceptionsHealth Information Privacy Code 1994Patient confidentiality
Development
DefinitionEmergency powersInternational law
QuarantineRadiation
Prioritisation
Legislation
Administration of vaccinesNational Immunisation Register
AlcoholControlled drugsFood and nutritionGamblingPsychoactive drugsTobaccoRegulation
Risk assessment
AccessEquity
ChildrenNational Cervical Screening Programme
GroundsOffencesRegulation
Artificial inseminationEthics
Access to informationAccess to servicesCollection and storage of informationConscientious objectionIn vitro fertilisationInformed consent
PurposeScopePosthumous conceptionStatus of children
Birth
ContraceptionSterilisationHuman reproductive research
As personAs propertyLegal status
'Born alive' ruleLegal status
Legal status
Legal status of stillborn child
EnforceabilityInternational surrogacyStatus and welfare of the child
Waste disposal
DrainageRacesStormwaterSupply
Human Rights Commission
JurisdictionPowers
Complaints
Investigation
Damages
Affirmative actionGood reasonForumProcedureSettlement
IndirectEducational establishments
Insurance
AgeDisabilityFamily statusIn employmentRemedies
RacialSexual
Powers
Civil and political rightsEconomic, social and cultural rightsInternational criminal lawInternational humanitarian law
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or PunishmentConvention and Protocol Relating to the Status of RefugeesConvention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against WomenConvention on the Rights of Persons with DisabilitiesGeneva conventionsILO conventionsInternational Convention for the Elimination of Racial DiscriminationInternational Covenant on Civil and Political RightsInternational Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural RightsUnited Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous PeoplesUniversal Declaration of Human Rights
International Labour Organization (ILO)
Habeas corpusImprisonment
Common lawLegal rightsNatural rightsReasonable limitationsRacial disharmony
DeportationNational security
National security
Cancellation
Persecution
Non-refoulement
RegulationCommencement
CreditorsIndividualInsolvent bodySecured creditorTransaction
Compromises with creditorsPrioritiesSet off
Interim liquidators
Ordinary course of businessVoluntary liquidation
Appointment of receivers
AdministrationCreditor interestsCreditors' remediesVoidable preferences
Duty of disclosureLiabilitiesRegulation
Authority
BrokersUnderwriting agents
Rights and powers
Proximate cause
Breach
Notice provisions
ContributionDate of accrual of action
ArbitrationFraudulent claims
LateMistakenProof of lossRectificationReinstatementSettlementsSubrogation
Commencement of coverDouble insurance
Extension
ConsequentialExcludedIncludedLiabilityMeasureMitigationSuccessiveTypes
Increase of risk
War
ScopeTemporary cover
ClaimsCoverFidelity funds
DutiesLicensingRegulationReinsurersRights and powers
AssignmentConditions precedent
Definitions
Material factsWaiver by insurerExclusionary provisionsIllegality
Materiality
CompositeJointThird partiesRenewalTerminationValuationWarranties
AmountNon-paymentReturn of premiums
AverageBettermentInsurable interest
RemediesDurationMaterial facts
Offences
Marine
Accident (see Accident compensation)FinancialHealth
ProductProfessionalLifeMarineMotor vehicle
Natural disastersReinsurance
Author
Originality
DurationOwnership
Artistic works
DurationCrown copyright
BroadcastsDefencesGenerallyOffencesPirated copyRemediesProduct marking
Application
CancellationDurationRenewalRestoration
Novelty
DefencesTests
Protection of interestsGeographical indications
Creation of interests
Creation of interests
DefencesExceptions
AssignmentLicences
Exclusive
OppositionRequirementsCertification trade marksCollective trade marks
AbsoluteRelativeValidity
Defences
Duration
Grounds
AppealsOppositionRefusals
AmendmentWho may apply
Foreign patents
AmendmentDurationRenewalRevocationInternational agreements
Novelty
Regulation
DefencesRemediesTestsLicensing
Types
Unauthorised use
DurationRequirements
ExceptionsLicensing
Principles
Access to registersAdministration of schemesAmendment of registerEffect of registrationFalsification of RegisterMaintenance of registers
Protection of interests
Creation of interestsProtection of interests
Assignment
Customary law
Immunity
Doctrine of sovereignty
ContractsJurisdictionPropertyRecognition of judgments and awardsConvenience of forumEnforcement of judgmentsJurisdictionRecognition of judgments and awards
Sources
Act of state doctrine
Acts of stateJuristic personalityTerritoryTerrorism
Incorporation into domestic lawInternational Covenant on Civil and Political RightsInterpretationUN Convention on the Rights of Persons with DisabilitiesUN Convention on the Rights of the ChildUniversal Declaration of Human Rights
Club licenceOff-licenceOn-licenceSpecial licence
Licensing trustsOffences
Airport authoritiesAuckland CouncilBoundariesChief executiveCommunity boardsCouncil-controlled organisationsHarbour boardsLocal authoritiesMayorMinister of Local GovernmentOmbudsmenRegional authoritiesTerritorial authoritiesAssets
Annual planDistrict valuation rollDog registerLong-term plan
Enforcement
ProsecutionValidity
Building
Community well-beingConsultationPower of general competenceTreaty of WaitangiDelegation
Public registers
Water charges
Maori wardsRecount of votes
AuditBorrowingChargesFundingRevenueSecuritiesSubsidies and grants
CommercialIndustrialResidentialLease
Compulsory acquisitionSubdivisionValuation
Judicial reviewLiability
FunctionsPowers
MinutesStanding ordersWhether open to public
DisclosureDisqualificationInterestsLiability
BiosecurityBuilding controlCamp groundsCivil defenceConservation
RegistrationHousingInformation centresLibraries and museumsLicensingParkingPassenger transportPublic entertainmentRoadsWaste disposalWastewaterWater supply
CriteriaImplementationProposalsReviewRevenue
Waste management
Compensation
Allocation of assetsCustomary rightsQuotasForests (see also Environment and natural resources - Conservation)
Settlement
Jurisdiction
Customary titleFiduciary obligationsFreeholdMaori Land Court
CrownFreeholdTransferTrustsValuation
Maori customary law
Hui runanga
RangatiratangaTapu and NoaUtuWhakapapaWhanaungatanga
Promotion of language and culture
PrinciplesSettlement
JurisdictionReports
Water
Priority claim
Priority claimHealth and safetyJurisdiction
Bill of ladingCollisionsFerries and puntsHarbours
Insurable interest
Assignment
Lloyd's SG policy
Voyage policies
Masters and officersPollution
Maritime lienMortgagePossessory lienTransferRegistration
CostsShipsTowageTowingWrecks
Advertising Standards Authority
JurisdictionPowers
Advertising
Rights
Public interest
Political broadcastsProgramme classification
ChildrenPrinciples
Publication likely to be injurious to the public goodReviewSubmission
Objectionable publications
EthicsFreedom of the pressGuidelinesProtection of sources
ContemptCopyrightDefamationDigital
Harmful digital communications
In-Court media coverage
Harmful digital communications
Powers
Children and young peopleComplaintsPrivacy
Take-down ordersPrint media
Privacy
Assessment examinationCompulsory assessment and treatmentSerious danger
Mental disorder
Parens patriae
Enduring power of attorneyEnduring powers of attorneyJurisdictionPersonal ordersProperty managerProperty ordersService of proceedings
Medical treatment
Judicial inquiryProcedure
Review of patient's statusSpecial patient status
AppropriatenessCommunity treatment order
Availability of community servicesExamination by judge
ExtensionReview of patient's statusJurisdiction
CapacityJudicial examinationPrincipal caregiver
Court order
LiabilitiesLimited partnerships
Liabilities
Fiduciary relationship
Special partnerships
Management
ConfinementEducationEmploymentProgrammesRightsSelf-care units
Between institutionsTreatment
Conditions of serviceOffences
BreachDetention of propertyEntering premisesSearch and seizure
Vermin and weedsDairyDevelopment
LegislationForestryIntensive farming
Branding and earmarkingDockingImpoundingPig ringsStock routesTravelling stock
Export
BreachCommuncationsCommunicationsCompeting interests
Public interest
ProcedureInformation matching
Application
Remedies
News activity
Legislation
Refusal
PurposeCorrectionsDefinitions
Threat to public
RefusedStorage and securityUnique identifiers
AccessCollectionCorrectionDisclosureStorageRemedies
ComplaintsMonitoring legislation and policyOversee information matchingPublic registers
Public register privacy principlesScope
Fiduciary duties
Powers and dutiesEthicsFinancial and related professions
Qualifications and admissionSolicitor and client
Disciplinary ordersMisconductUnsatisfactory conduct
To clientTo Court
Liability for costsUndertakings
Practicing certificates
Recognition of overseas qualificationsReadmission
Contingency feesCounsel's fees
Barristers
Chinese walls
Full disclosure
RelationshipRetainer
Trust accounts
Professional indemnity
Complaints and disciplineDoctorsDuties
Qualification and registrationPractising certificatesPsychiatrists
Body of opinion
Prohibited or restricted tradesReal estate agents
By profession
Choses in action
By baileeDefinitionDocumentary IntangiblesGeneral intangibles
EquipmentShips
FindersJointRights arising from
Charge
Collateral
CollateralPriorityRegistration
Access rights
ChangeFencingCharterparties
Compensation
E-dealingCrown landEasementsEjectment
CaveatsRestrictive covenants
AnnexationDefinitionEffect of affixationRemovalTenant fixtures
Beneficial interestsLease
ExpressImpliedLien
RedemptionPartitionPossessionRates
Procedures
CreationDevelopmentProtectionUse
Breach
ChargeSurveying
Abandoned propertyCross leaseJointRegistrationStrata and related titlesTransferUnit titles
LimitationsPrivate rights
MethodsObjections and appeals
Capital valueValuers
BoatingClubs and societies
Community centresHistoric placesSwimming baths
LocalRegional
Churches and religious associations
Account of profits
CalculationChange of position
Assessment
Accounting for profits
Loss of a chanceTime of assessment
Intervening forceProof
AggravatedCompensatoryExemplaryLiquidated
DeterrentNominalRestitutionary
Loss
Damage to chattelsQuantumRemotenessTaxation
Declaration
Court supervisionJudgment
Affecting activitiesAffecting property
AssetsThird parties
Balance of convenienceOverall justice of caseSerious question to be tried
MandatoryPermanentQuia timetUndertakings
PrinciplesRectification
AssessmentDisgorgementSet-off
Undue hardshipStatutory
CommercialControlledEconomicExistingPermitted
To air
Marine area
To water
Competing applicationsNotificationComplianceConditions
International treaty obligations
NoiseOdours
Coastal
AirContaminantsWaterLand useMarine farmingProposal of national significanceSubdivisionWater
Designations
Archaeological siteCulturalHeritage valueNatural
Environment CourtHigh Court
Conservation estate
ContaminantsInfringement offenceProsecution
Marine areaNZ coastal policy statement
Change or variationReviewRules
Change or variationRegional policy statementReview
Avoid remedy mitigateEfficient use and developmentPrivate v public interestProcedure
Safety
Abatement noticeDeclarationEnforcement orderRoads, traffic, and transport
ClassificationConservation orderPermitQualityTake and use
Ownership
Email
HardwareComputer crime
Authorised usersEncryption
AccessPersonal dataStorage
Cyber-squatting
Disputes
Liability
Blogs
KeywordsSocial networking
Development
Balancing private and public
Research and development
Ethics
Restorative justice
Superannuation
Dissolution
Legal action
International law
Context
PurposeTransitional provisionsTransititional provisions
Gap in legislationSpecial purpose legislation
Definitions
Financial reporting standards
Income tax rates
Choice principle
AdvantagesDisadvantagesIncentive provisionsIncome splitting
E-commerceTax systems and tax competition
Inland RevenueExportingImporting
Inland Revenue
Judicial reviewProcedureElectronic lodgementOffences and penaltiesReturns
Binding rulingsCourtsTax legislation
Incorrect expert adviceTerminal tax
Customs dutyEstate and gift dutyStamp duty
AustralianEmissions Trading Scheme developmentsConcepts and history
Environmental Restoration Account (ERA)FutureGlobal contextTax deductibility
Emissions Trading Scheme
AdministrationAttributed fringe benefitsEmployment / other arrangementsExclusionsImpositionInsurance and superannuationInteraction with other regimesLow-interest loansMotor vehiclesSubsidised transportTax ratesTaxable valueUnclassified benefits
ApportionmentConsiderationDeemed supplyDisputes and challenges procedures
Bitcoin and crypto-currenciesExcise dutyExempt suppliesExempt supplyExemptionsFinancial servicesFringe benefitsGamblingGoing concernInput taxOutput taxPlace of supplySale and purchase agreementSecondhand goodsSupplyTaxable activityTaxable supplyTime of supplyValuationZero ratingZero-rating
Anti-avoidance rules
Power of recoveryPower to gather informationPower to investigate
Amalgamated companiesBodies corporateBranches and divisionsCancellationDeemed registrationDeregistrationGroup of companiesGroups of companiesGroups of personsLiabiity of liquidators, agents, mortgagee salesLiquidators, receivers or agentsNon-profit bodiesNon-resident businessesPersonal representativesRegistered person
PartnershipsTrustsUnregistered personVoluntary registration
Accounting basisAdjustmentsInvoicesLiability of liquidators, agents, mortgagee salesPayment basisTaxable periods
Accounting basisHybrid basisInvoicesLiability of liquidators, agents, mortgagee salesPayment basisRecordsTaxable periods
Agents and auctioneersAssociated personsBranches and divisionsCompensation paymentsDebt recoveriesImported goodsImported servicesMixed-use assetsMortgagee salesReverse chargeSale of donated goods and servicesTrustsUnconditional giftsTaxable activity
Death dutyLand taxSales tax
Dividends
Charities
Deductions and rebatesExclusions from income
KiwiSaver government contributionsLoss offsetsLossesPayments to business vendors for restraint of tradeReimbursement payments
Disposal and transferDistinction between income and capital
Banking
Payments for restraint of trade
Disposal of farm assets
CapitalDividendsFinancial arrangement incomeForeign sourced incomeForeign-sourced incomeHobbiesHonorariaIllegal activities
Land transactionsPersonal property transactionsInducement paymentsInsuranceLand transactionsPersonal Property transactions
EntertainersSportspeopleProfitsReligious activitiesRoyaltiesSale of livestockSale of timber and timber rightsSchedular paymentsShare tradingStudent loans
Disposal and transferExcepted financial arrangements and exclusionsLow-turnover tradersValuation
Compensation PaymentInducement paymentRedundancy paymentsSchedular payments
Foreign-sourced income
AgentsAssociated persons
Categories of companiesContract workersContractor workersEmployeesInvestorsNon-residentsPartners and partnershipsShareholdersTrustsUnincorporated bodies
Anti-avoidance provisionBad debts
DepreciationForestry costs
Business cessation expensesBusiness preparation expensesFarm expensesLegalVehicles
Capital Gains
Bad debts
Land transaction
Land transactionsPersonal Property transactionsProfits
Accruals
ConceptsHistoryLegislationTax benefitsWith international purposeConsolidation rules
Adjustments on disposalDepreciation claw back
Anti-avoidance provisionsBase price adjustmentCash basis personDeterminationsExcepted financial arrangementsFinancial arrangement definitionForeign exchange variationsSpreading methodsForeign investor tax credit (FITC) regimeFringe benefit tax (FBT) rulesImputation rulesIncome equalisation schemes
Approved issuer levy (AIL) regime
Control tests
Non-portfolio FIFsForeign investor tax credit (FITC) regimeForeign tax creditsNon-resident transport operatorsSource rulesTransfer pricing rules
International taxation rulesLivestock valuation rulesLook-through companies rulesLook-through company rulesNon-resident withholding (NRWT) tax rulesNon-resident withholding tax (NRWT) rules
Limited partnershipsSpecial partnershipsPay-as-you-earn (PAYE) rules
Refunds
Provisional tax rulesQualifying and loss attributing qualifying companies rulesResident withholding tax (RWT) rules
Family scheme creditsSocial welfare benefits
Business incomeContractsDividendsEmployment incomeInterestPensions and annuitiesReal property incomeRoyalties
Controlled foreign companies
Controlled foreign companies
Charitable trustsDeceased estatesCharitable trustsInternational trust regime
Partners and partnershipsTrustsUnincorporated bodies
Commentary
Foreign tax credits
International tax planningJurisprudenceSuperannuationTax havens
NegativeProgressiveProportionalRegressive
Definitions and descriptionsPrinciplesPurposeSources of law
ResponsibilitiesRight of entry
AssignmentBondContentDiscriminationEnforceabilityInsuranceKey moneyLeaseMinorsRenewal
Market rentReceiptsSublettingTermination
Tenancy tribunal
FixturesQuiet enjoymentResponsibilites
Commercial interest
Maintenance and champertyMalicious civil proceedingsMalicious prosecution
Confidential informationDefencesObligation of confidenceUnauthorised use of information
Statutory intent
Contributory negligenceCrown Proceedings Act 1950Volenti non fit injuria
But-for testMultiple causesIntervening causes
DefencesRemedies
Loss
Knowledge of falsityReckless as to truth
ActualIntended
Actions
ConsentFair commentHonest opinion
Judicial proceedingsParliamentaryQualified
Truth
Extrinsic factsReasonable person testLibel and slander
AuthorisedInnocent disseminationMeaning
InternetMultiple publicationsProof
Internet Service Providers
Correction
AssessmentReduction for mitigationDeclarationInjunctionsRetraction and reply
ContextInnuendoNatural and ordinary meaningReference to plaintiff
Assumption of riskConsent
ApportionmentExclusion of liabilityIllegalityJustificationNecessityStatutory power or duty
Breach of duty
Economic loss
False statementMalicious intentPublicationInterference with business relationsInterference with contractual relations
Defences
False associationsNames and marks
CrownDetermination
Diplomatic
Contribution proceedingsJoint tortfeasorsSeveral tortfeasors
AgencyContractorsEmployeePartners
Conduct in exercise of public officeDamageKnowlege of unlawful and harmful conductPublic law compensationPublic officer
ForeseeabilityRemotenessBreach of duty of care
Physical injuryTo property
Burden of precautionsGravity of riskPolicyProximityEconomic or financial loss
Recognisable psychiatric injury
CapacityReasonable person testSkilled person
ControlPublic bodies
Negligent misstatement
Medical negligence
BurdenRes ipsa loquiturStandard of proof
Fire
Statutory power or duty
Strict
Use and enjoyment
Special damage
Abatement
Assessment
Quia timet injunctions
Duty of carePolicyProximity of lossRelationship to contract
Disclosure of personal informationIntrusion on seclusion, solitude, or private affairs
Expectation of privacyHighly offensive publicityLegitimate public concern
IntellectualPersonalReputation
Account of profits
Assessment
Aggravated
ExemplaryQuantumRemoteness
DeclarationInjunctionRestitutionSelf-help
Wrongful interference
LicenceRecaption of chattelsDefinition of land
Reasonable force
Possession of land
AssaultBattery
Defence of person and propertyDetention and treatment of mentally disordered personsExecution of sentence, process, or warrantLawful arrest and detentionFalse imprisonmentHarassmentRule in Wilkinson v Downton
Demand and refusalPossession or right to possession
DamagesSpecific restitution
Waiver
Invasion of privacy
Abuse of dominant position
Dominant position in a market
behaviourAuthorisations and clearancesMarket dominancePenalties
Dominant position in a marketPrice fixing
Acceptable qualityFitness for purposeRemedies
Consumer information
In tradeLimitation periodPenaltiesProduct safety
False or misleading representations
AdvertisingAffliationConduct liable to misleadPricingTrade namesUnfair contract terms
Damages
Regulation
Discrimination
Restrictive trade practices
Passenger services
OperatorsPurposesOffences
Public operators
Passenger services
AccessAlterationClosureConstruction, maintenance and repairStoppingStructures
Land Transport Safety Authority
Grounds
DefencesKnowledge
Knowledge
Accounting for profitsConstructive trustDamagesEquitable compensationInterest
Apportionment
Loss-minimising rulesTaxation
Alter ego trusts
Institutional constructive trustsRemedial constructive trustsExecuted and executory trusts
Constituted trustsFamily trustsInter vivosTestamentary trustsImplied trusts
Apparent gifts
Rebuttal of presumption
Elements
ElementsTrading trusts
Certainty of intentionCertainty of objects or beneficiariesCertainty of subject-matter
Writing
Intention
Interpretation
Beneficiaries under a disability
VariationPrivate trustsPurpose trusts
Access information
Rule against remoteness of vestingRule against restrictions on alienation
GenerallySpecial casesRegulation
Family arrangementsResettlementTermination
AcceptanceAppointmentDisclaimerDismissal, retirement or removal
AccountsAct in beneficiaries' best interestsActs of co-trusteesAdherence to trust termsBreach of trustDelegation of dutiesDuty not to profitExemption clausesFiduciary dutiesImpartiality between beneficiariesInvestment of trust property
Exercise of discretionary powers
Liability of trustee
IndemnityInsuranceMaintenance and advancementTo carry on business
Corporate trusteesProfessional trusteesTrustee de son tortVesting
Beneficiary consent
Cy-pres modificationStatutoryTrust deed
Limits
GenerationRetailing
Fire service
RetailingHospitalsRoadsWater
Execution
Proceedings against
Fiduciary dutiesTitle and estate
Variation of trust settlement
Probate and letters of administrationRectification
Soundness of mind
Joint and mutual willsUndue influence
Elements
Alternative action/diversion